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    Normal Ranges of Joint Motion

    According to Kurz, the following tables indicates the normal ranges of joint motion for various parts of the body:


    Flexion: 70-90 degrees
    Touch sternum with chin.

    Extension: 55 degrees
    Try to point up with chin.

    Lateral bending: 35 degrees
    Bring ear close to shoulder.

    Rotation: 70 degrees left & right
    Turn head to the left, then right.

    Lumbar Spine

    Flexion: 75 degrees
    Bend forward at the waist.

    Extension: 30 degrees
    Bend backward.

    Lateral bending: 35 degrees
    Bend to the side.


    Abduction: 180 degrees
    Bring arm up sideways.

    Adduction: 45 degrees
    Bring arm toward the midline of the body.

    Horizontal extension: 45 degrees
    Swing arm horizontally backward.

    Horizontal flexion: 130 degrees
    Swing arm horizontally forward.

    Vertical extension: 60 degrees
    Raise arm straight backward.

    Vertical flexion: 180 degrees
    Raise arm straight forward.


    Flexion: 150 degrees
    Bring lower arm to the biceps

    Extension: 180 degrees
    Straighten out lower arm.

    Supination: 90 degrees
    Turn lower arm so palm of hand faces up.

    Pronation: 90 degrees
    Turn lower arm so palm faces down.


    Flexion: 80-90 degrees
    Bend wrist so palm nears lower arm.

    Extension: 70 degrees
    Bend wrist in opposite direction.

    Radial deviation: 20 degrees
    Bend wrist so thumb nears radius.

    Ulnar deviation: 30-50 degrees
    Bend wrist so pinky finger nears ulna.


    Flexion: 110-130 degrees
    Flex knee and bring thigh close to abdomen.

    Extension: 30 degrees
    Move thigh backward without moving the pelvis.

    Abduction: 45-50 degrees
    Swing thigh away from midline.

    Adduction: 20-30 degrees
    Bring thigh toward and across midline.

    Internal rotation: 40 degrees
    Flex knee and swing lower leg away from midline.

    External rotation: 45 degrees
    Flex knee and swing lower leg toward midline.


    Flexion: 130 degrees
    Touch calf to hamstring.

    Extension: 15 degrees
    Straighten out knee as much as possible.

    Internal rotation: 10 degrees
    Twist lower leg toward midline.


    Flexion: 45 degrees
    Bend ankle so toes point up.

    Extension: 20 degrees
    Bend ankle so toes point down.

    Pronation: 30 degrees
    Turn foot so the sole faces in.

    Supination: 20 degrees
    Turn foot so the sole faces out.

    Stretching and Flexibility -- | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |

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